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The housing company in Helsinki, Finland tests a new solar community IT service

Photo credit: HSSR Oy

Highlights

  • Under current Finnish regulation, grid fees and electricity taxes apply to the electricity generated by housing companies within their property grid.
  • The housing company Haapalahdenkatu 11 is testing a smart metering IT service that enables residents to share the generated solar electricity.
  • In deciding whether to invest in the solar PV system, environmental motives of the housing company members dominated the decision-making process.
  • Key success factors were project leaders’ enthusiasm and determination.
  • The test model is promising but regulatory changes are required to make it more economically attractive for real-life conditions.

Background information

In Finland, there are approximately 2.6 million citizens living in 90,000 housing companies and 142,000 apartment buildings or terraced houses. Currently, renewable energy incentives such as investment grants, feed-in-tariffs or tax deductions are not available for housing companies or for any kind of residential buildings. Investment grants in Finland are only available for companies and municipalities.

The Limited Liability Housing Company Haapalahdenkatu 11 is located in Pikku-Huopalahti neighborhood in Helsinki. The two building complex consists in total of 24 apartments and 56 residents. It is taking part in the FinSolar pilot project lead by Aalto University to test a solar community IT service that enables its residents to share the electricity produced by a PV system through their property grid. FinSolar obtained a special permission from the Finnish Energy Authority, Ministry of Economy and the Employment and Financial Ministry. This permission was to test the solar community IT-service from 2017 to 2019 in cooperation with two Finnish Distribution System Operators (DSOs), some housing companies, and other stakeholders.

Brief description of what was done

In 2017, the housing company made an investment in a solar PV system in connection with the roof renovation. The solar power system has an output of 8,7 kWp and includes 33 panels and a 12,5 kWp inverter. The size of the inverter is larger than the power output for the future scalability of the solar PV system. Initially, the solar PV plant was intended to produce electricity only for the common parts of the building, e.g. yard lights, elevator, laundry room, etc. The opportunity to join FinSolar as a pilot case for community energy production emerged after the apartment owners had started discussions about the possibility to install a solar PV system.

Project champions and motivations

The main project champions were two residents who were part of the housing company’s board. They had a strong motivation to reduce the environmental impact of their residence. In addition, they had become familiar with solar PV technology at their place of work. Before starting the project, the two champions were also inspired and encouraged by a local solar energy advocate and expert. During the implementation phase, a project manager from HSSR Oy played a key role in providing them with the needed expertise.

Project supporters’ were motivated to join the FinSolar project as they had a desire to set a good example for other housing companies in Finland and to help remove legislative obstacles for similar community energy initiatives. Even without the opportunity to join FinSolar, the majority of the housing company’s residents would have still decided to make the solar PV investment. Therefore, the opportunity to join FinSolar influenced only the investment decision, which was to purchase a larger PV system. By doing so, the generated electricity could go beyond communal spaces, allowing residents to also benefit from it in their own apartment.

Decision making process

The shareholders needed to decide in the housing company’s general meeting regarding the solar PV investment and the participation in the FinSolar pilot project. Shareholders had different views and therefore it was difficult to reach a consensus. Furthermore, project opponents raised arguments against the profitability of the investment. The project opponents also considered the testing of a new model too risky, as it could have been non-compliant with the Finnish legislation after the end of the FinSolar project. On the other hand, the project leaders and supporters inside the housing company emphasized the importance of acting for the environment. Eventually, the decision was made by a vote.

Since the project was expected to reduce the general costs and the amount of needed capital was not so big, most of the residents did not see the low profitability of the investment as an obstacle so they voted in favor of the solar PV investment.

Ownership model adopted

The solar PV plant is owned by the residents through the Limited Liability Housing Company. In these companies, the number of shares that apartment owners hold depends on the apartment size and their payments to the common investments which are proportional to the shares. The solar PV plant is paid and owned by the residents in relation to their number of shares in the housing company. Therefore, the smart metering IT-service has a calculation algorithm that distributes hour by hour the solar electricity production to the apartments according to their size and percentage of shares.

Financing and economic viability

The cost of the system was approximately 13,000 € including 24% value added tax (VAT). The net present value (NPV) of the investment is approximately 5,000 €, the payback period of 21 years and the solar electricity production cost is about 8,7 ¢/kWh with an expected system lifetime of 30 years. The investment was financed with a bank loan.

Project implementation

Commissioned by the housing company, the roof renovation and solar PV system purchase was carried out by HSSR Oy company who specialize in renovation projects. All phases of the project implementation including permitting, tendering, supervising the installation works, etc. was covered by HSSR Oy. The IT service needed to allocate the solar power shares that were provided by the local Distribution System Operator (DSO) Helen Sähköverkko Oy. The housing management company Talohallinta Oy took care of all the contracts and paperwork. As a result, the project was very easy for the residents – they only had to make the decision on whether or not to invest in the solar PV system.

Project benefits

After the first year having solar panels in place, the housing company had made savings in the common electricity bills. This was felt as an encouraging result leading some of the residents to use the savings to purchase more plants for the gardens.

Barriers

Currently residents of the housing companies throughout Finland cannot produce solar electricity for self-consumption in an economically feasible way. The electricity market regulation does not enable the sharing of the solar electricity inside the property grid. Distribution grid fees and electricity taxes apply even when solar electricity circulates inside the apartment building through DSO’s smart meters. Consequently, once the FinSolar project is concluded residents of the housing company are at risk of not being able to use 20% of their solar PV production for self-consumption.

The Measurement Instrument Directive (MID) is another barrier for community energy IT services. According to the directive, consumers should be able to monitor directly from the smart meter’s display measurement values that are used as a basis of their electricity billing. Currently smart meters in Finland do not display hour-by-hour electricity consumption or production values.

In addition, the value added tax (VAT) procedures present a challenge as housing companies are required to report any surplus solar electricity sales (even 1 €/year) to VAT register. This bureaucracy increases housing companies’ financial administration expenses by a minimum 500 €/year, hampering the profitability of the solar investment. Housing company Haapalahdenkatu 11 is currently looking into alternatives to VAT registration such as selling their surplus solar electricity for free (0 ¢/kWh) to their electricity provider.

Main lessons learned

  • It is important to have determination and remain motivated to carry out a project and not be afraid if some vocal community members oppose it.
  • The majority of the community members can still support a project even though they are silent during the meetings in which the investment is discussed.
  • One should find the right partners that can help in completing a project, e.g. local DSO, project managers, companies specializing in roof-renovation, energy experts, and local community energy champions.

Project champions’ recommendations to policymakers

  • It is important to remove regulatory barriers so that housing company residents can produce solar energy for self-consumption.
  • Incentives, such as investment grants or low-interest loans could make investment decisions easier.

Authors

Karoliina Auvinen and Salvatore Ruggiero
Aalto University School of Business, Helsinki, Finland

Published in September 2018. Original case story and other community energy cases can be found in Co2mmunity.eu website. 

Sources

Small scale solar PV policies around the world

Economic instruments to support small solar PV plants around the globe according IEA/IRENA Joint Policies and Measures Database 

TITLE COUNTRY YEAR POLICY STATUS POLICY TYPE POLICY TARGET
Subsidy for solar PV with storage installations (Programm zur Förderung von PV-Batteriespeichern) Germany 2016 (March 1st) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Loans, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Morocco Net-Metering legislation (Law n°58-15) Morocco 2016 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>User charges, Regulatory Instruments Solar, Wind
Pakistan net metering policy for solar PV and wind projects Pakistan 2015 (Sept 1st) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>User charges, Regulatory Instruments Solar, Wind
Feed-in Tariffs for Electricity Produced from Renewable Energy Sources (3rd quarter of 2015) Lithuania 2015 (May 28th) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind, Solar, Bioenergy, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources>Power
Uttar Pradesh net-metering regulations for rooftop solar PV India 2015 (March 20th) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>User charges, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar>Solar photovoltaic>Residential, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Tax incentives for renewable energy Kenya 2015 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Tax relief Solar, Hydropower, Wind, Solar Thermal>Solar heat
Tax incentives for renewable energy Madagascar 2015 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Tax relief Solar, Hydropower, Wind
Renewable Energy Fund for off-grid solutions Botswana 2015 In Force Economic Instruments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Loans, Economic Instruments>Direct investment, Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives Solar, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>Power
Zambia Scaling Solar Programme Zambia 2015 In Force Economic Instruments>Market-based instruments, Regulatory Instruments Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Lesotho Energy Policy 2015-2025 Lesotho 2015 In Force Policy Support, Policy Support>Strategic planning, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar
Feed-in tariff for wind and solar PV projects Egypt 2014 (Sept 20th) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Wind
Poverty alleviation project by installation of solar PV panels in poor households China 2014 (Oct 11th) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives Solar>Solar photovoltaic>Residential, Solar>Solar photovoltaic>Commercial
Royal Decree Law 24/2013 on the Electricity Sector Spain 2014 (Jan 1st) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>User charges, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Feed-in tariff for solar PV installations Algeria 2014 (Apr 24th) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Uttar Pradesh renewable energy feed-in tariff 2014 – 2019 levels India 2014 (Apr 1st) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Hydropower, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Bioenergy>Biomass for power
Feed-in tariff support for solar PV China 2013 (last updated 2016) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Decree No. 221/2013 establishing a price regulation in electricity and Decree No. 189/2014 (which amends and supplements decree 221/2013) Slovakia 2013 (last amended 2014) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Taxes Multiple RE Sources>Power, Bioenergy, Geothermal, Hydropower, Solar, Wind
Feed-in tariff for electricity generated from renewable energy sources Ghana 2013 (last amended 2014) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Wind, Solar, Hydropower, Bioenergy
Feed-in tariff for distributed solar systems Thailand 2013 (amended in 2014) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar
Notice on the policy of PV electricity VAT China 2013 (Sept 23th) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Tax relief Solar
Private generation of photovoltaic energy (Auctions and Feed-in Tariffs) Uruguay 2013 (May) In Force Regulatory Instruments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar
Feed-in tariff (Regulación para La participación de los generadores de energía eléctrica producida con Recursos Energéticos Renovables No Convencionales No. CONELEC 001/13) Ecuador 2013 (June 21st) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind, Solar Thermal, Ocean>Wave, Ocean>Tidal, Bioenergy, Geothermal, Hydropower
Power purchase from solar photovoltaic plants (No. 17/2013) Indonesia 2013 (June 12th) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Law of finance 2013 relative to the deletion of customs charges on equipments and material of solar energy Burkina Faso 2013 (Jan) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Tax relief Solar, Solar Thermal, Solar Thermal>Solar heat, Solar Thermal>Solar thermal electricity (STE), Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Financial aid programme for energy savings and renewable energy in housing 2013 Luxembourg 2013 (Jan 1st) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Solar, Solar Thermal, Bioenergy, Multiple RE Sources>Heating, Multiple RE Sources>Renewable heat pumps
Elimination of low emission sources through support of energy efficiency and development of dispersed renewable energy sources. Part 2) pilot program KAWKA Poland 2013 (Feb 28th) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Multiple RE Sources, Solar Thermal, Solar Thermal>Solar heat
Renewable Energy Development Fund Iran 2013 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives Wind>Onshore, Solar, Geothermal, Bioenergy, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>All
Global Energy Transfer Feed-in Tariff (GET FIT) Programme Uganda Uganda 2013 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Loans Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Hydropower, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Bioenergy>Co-firing with fossil fuels, Geothermal>Power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Wind
Feed-in Tariff for electricity generated from renewable energy Japan 2012 (last updated 2015) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal>Power, Hydropower, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Wind>Offshore, Wind>Onshore
Feed-In Tariff for Electricity Generated from Biomass, Ocean, Run-of-River Hydropower, Solar and Wind Energy Resources Philippines 2012 (last updated 2015) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Hydropower, Wind, Bioenergy, Solar
National Energy Policy Malta 2012 (Dec.) In Force Policy Support>Strategic planning, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives, Economic Instruments Solar Thermal, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Multiple RE Sources>Heating, Multiple RE Sources>Power
Light in the House Programme (Oaxaca State) Mexico 2012 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment, Economic Instruments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Loans Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar>Solar photovoltaic>Off-grid
Renewable Energy Act establishing feed-in tariff (FIT) system Malaysia 2011 (last updated 2015) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Hydropower, Bioenergy
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) for electricity from renewable sources Bulgaria 2011 (last updated 2015) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar, Wind, Hydropower, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal
Law on Energy from Renewable Sources Lithuania 2011 (last amended 2013) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives, Policy Support, Regulatory Instruments>Codes and standards>Building codes and standards, Regulatory Instruments, Policy Support>Strategic planning Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>All, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Multiple RE Sources>Heating, Wind, Solar, Hydropower, Bioenergy, Bioenergy>Biomass for heat, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Bioenergy>Biofuels for transport
Renewable Energy feed-in tariff Uganda 2011 (last amended 2012 Nov) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind, Bioenergy, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal, Geothermal>Power, Hydropower, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Decree on Tariff Incentives for Renewable Energy and Efficient Cogeneration Montenegro 2011 (November) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Multiple RE Sources, Wind, Bioenergy, Solar, Hydropower
Resolution on Feed-in Tariffs for electricity generated from renewable energy sources Belarus 2011 (June 30) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>All, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Bioenergy, Geothermal, Hydropower, Solar, Wind
Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Programme (REIPPP) South Africa 2011 In Force Policy Support, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums, Economic Instruments Multiple RE Sources, Wind>Onshore, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar Thermal, Bioenergy>Biomass for heat, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Bioenergy>Co-firing with fossil fuels, Bioenergy, Bioenergy>Biofuels for transport, Hydropower
Renewable Energy Law 2010 Turkey 2011 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind, Bioenergy, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal, Geothermal>Power, Hydropower, Solar
Support scheme for solar panels Netherlands 2011 In Force Policy Support, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Solar, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Solar Revolving Fund (SRF) Namibia 2011 In Force Economic Instruments, Economic Instruments>Market-based instruments Solar
Nigeria Renewable Energy Master Plan Nigeria 2011 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Tax relief, Policy Support>Strategic planning Wind, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources
Light for Mexico Programme Mexico 2011 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Funds to sub-national governments, Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments Solar, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar>Solar photovoltaic>Off-grid
Rajasthan Solar Policy India 2011 In Force Economic Instruments>Market-based instruments>Green certificates, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Tax relief, Policy Support>Strategic planning, Policy Support>Institutional creation Solar Thermal, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Uganda Energy Credit Capitalisation Company (UECCC) Uganda 2011 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Loans, Policy Support>Institutional creation, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Information and Education>Advice/Aid in Implementation Bioenergy, Hydropower, Solar, Wind
Feed-in Tariffs for renewable electricity for PV and non-PV technologies United Kingdom 2010 (last updated 2015) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind>Onshore, Bioenergy, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources>CHP, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Small Scale Distributed Generation (SSDG) (Feed-in tariff/Net metering scheme) Mauritius 2010 (last amended 2012) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind, Hydropower, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar, Multiple RE Sources>Power
Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff: Solar PV France 2010 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Residential Net Feed-in Tariff for Western Australia Australia 2010 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind>Onshore, Hydropower, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
New South Wales Solar Bonus Scheme Australia 2010 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind>Onshore, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Grid-connected Rooftop Photovoltaic Systems project 2010-2014 Seychelles 2010 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Building Integrate Solar PV Programme China 2010 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar>Solar photovoltaic
National Solar Mission (Phase I and II) India 2010 In Force Regulatory Instruments>Other mandatory requirements, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Tax relief, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Research, Development and Deployment (RD&D)>Research programme Solar Thermal, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
RE Tariff regulations India 2009 (revised Nov 2010) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Bioenergy>Co-firing with fossil fuels, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar Thermal
Green Tariff (Feed-in Tariff) Ukraine 2009 (last amended 2015) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Wind, Hydropower, Bioenergy>Biomass for power
Feed-in Tariffs for RES and Investment Aid for Small PV Switzerland 2009 (last amended 2014) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums, Policy Support, Economic Instruments>Direct investment Wind>Onshore, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Fiscal incentive for users heating up water with solar panels (Mexico City) Mexico 2009 (last amended 2012) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Feed-in tariff for Solar PV Greece 2009 (amended in 2010) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Taxes, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Feed-in-tariffs for Solar PV and Wind sourced power Israel 2009 (adjusted 2011) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind>Onshore, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar Thermal
Ontario Feed-in Tariff Programme Canada 2009 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind>Onshore, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Support Scheme for Electricity Generation from Renewables (SSRES) Cyprus 2009 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Bioenergy, Solar, Wind
Feed-in premium tariffs for renewable power (Promotion of Renewable Energy Act) Denmark 2009 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind>Onshore, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal, Hydropower, Ocean, Solar, Wind>Offshore
Australian Capital Territory Electricity Feed-In Tariff Scheme Australia 2009 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal>Power, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources>All, Ocean, Solar, Solar Thermal, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Multiple RE Sources>Power
Promotion of Renewable Energy Act Denmark 2009 In Force Regulatory Instruments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Loans, Research, Development and Deployment (RD&D) Wind>Onshore, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources, Ocean, Solar, Wind>Offshore
Onshore Renewable Energy Development Programs United States 2009 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Policy Support>Strategic planning, Information and Education>Information provision Multiple RE Sources>Power, Wind, Solar, Solar Thermal, Bioenergy, Geothermal
Investment Aid for Solar Photovoltaic Cells Connected to the Grid Sweden 2009 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Small Power Producers (SPP) Framework United Republic of Tanzania 2009 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives Solar, Wind, Bioenergy, Hydropower
Obligatory dispatch and electricity purchase from renewable and waste generators (feed-in tariff) Hungary 2008 (last amended 2014) In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind, Solar, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Hydropower, Geothermal
Law for the Development of Renewable Energy and Energy Transition Financing (LAFAERTE) Mexico 2008 (November 29th) In Force Regulatory Instruments, Regulatory Instruments>Other mandatory requirements, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives, Policy Support>Strategic planning, Policy Support>Institutional creation Wind, Geothermal, Solar, Hydropower
Integrated Energy Services Project (2007-2014) Mexico 2008 (December 5th) In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Policy Support Solar, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Victorian Feed-in Tariff Scheme Australia 2008 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind>Onshore, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Hydropower, Solar, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Wind
Microgeneration Support Programme Ireland 2008 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Wind>Onshore, Hydropower, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
South Australian Feed-in Tariff Scheme Australia 2008 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar>Solar photovoltaic
National Programme for Rural Electrification of Rural Areas (PNER) Angola 2008 In Force Economic Instruments, Economic Instruments>Direct investment Hydropower, Solar
Queensland Solar Bonus Scheme Australia 2008 In Force Voluntary Approaches>Unilateral Commitments (Private sector), Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar, Bioenergy>Biomass for power
Decentralised Rural Electrification Program Madagascar 2008 In Force Policy Support>Strategic planning, Voluntary Approaches>Negotiated Agreements (Public-private sector), Voluntary Approaches>Public Voluntary Schemes, Economic Instruments>Market-based instruments>GHG emissions trading, Economic Instruments>Market-based instruments>Green certificates, Economic Instruments>Market-based instruments>White certificates Hydropower, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Wind>Onshore
Excise tax exemption for electricity generated from renewable energy sources Slovakia 2008 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Tax relief Wind, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal>Power, Hydropower, Solar
Solar Power Subsidy Uganda 2007 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar
Generation of Electricity using Renewable Energy Sources Greece 2006 (amended 2009) In Force Regulatory Instruments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind>Onshore, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal>Power, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources>CHP, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Wind>Offshore
Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs (III) France 2006 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Feed-in tariffs/premiums Wind>Onshore, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal>Power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Wind>Offshore
Tax Incentives for renewable energy Uganda 2005 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Tax relief Solar Thermal, Hydropower, Solar
Sowing Light Programme Venezuela 2005 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment Solar>Solar photovoltaic>Residential, Solar>Solar photovoltaic>Off-grid
Home Subsidy Program Korea 2004n In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Bioenergy>Biofuels for transport, Geothermal>Power, Ocean>Tidal, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar Thermal, Wind
Rural Electrification Act Malawi 2004 In Force Economic Instruments, Economic Instruments>Direct investment Solar, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Renewables Obligation (RO) United Kingdom 2002 (last amended 2015) In Force Economic Instruments>Market-based instruments>Green certificates, Information and Education>Performance Label>Endorsement label, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives, Policy Support>Strategic planning, Regulatory Instruments>Monitoring, Regulatory Instruments>Obligation schemes , Regulatory Instruments>Codes and standards Wind>Onshore, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Geothermal>Power, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources>All, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Ocean>Tidal, Ocean>Wave, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Wind, Wind>Offshore
Energy for Rural Transformation Program Pase II and III Uganda 2002 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments, Information and Education>Advice/Aid in Implementation, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Loans, Policy Support>Institutional creation, Policy Support>Strategic planning Solar Thermal, Bioenergy>Biomass for power, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
San Francisco Solar Energy Incentive Program United States 2001 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Solar>Solar photovoltaic
National Sustainable and Renewable Energy Programme (NSREP) 1999 Malawi 1999 In Force Economic Instruments, Economic Instruments>Direct investment Solar, Solar Thermal, Wind, Bioenergy
Renewable Energy Services Programme (RESPRO) Ghana 1999 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments Solar>Solar photovoltaic
New and renewable energy programme (Exec. Order 462) Philippines 1997 (modified 2000) In Force Regulatory Instruments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Wind, Ocean, Solar
National Photovoltaic Rural Electrification Programme Botswana 1997 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Loans Solar Thermal, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Tribal Energy Program United States 1994 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies, Information and Education, Information and Education>Advice/Aid in Implementation, Information and Education>Information provision, Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Funds to sub-national governments Wind, Solar>Solar photovoltaic
Rural Electrification Policy Fiji 1993 In Force Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments, Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Hydropower, Solar>Solar photovoltaic, Solar>Solar photovoltaic>Off-grid, Solar>Solar photovoltaic>Residential, Bioenergy>Biomass for power
Malawi Rural Electrification Programme (MAREP) Malawi 1980 In Force Economic Instruments, Economic Instruments>Direct investment>Infrastructure investments, Economic Instruments>Direct investment Solar
Program of Energy Research and Development (PERD) Canada 1974 In Force Economic Instruments>Fiscal/financial incentives>Grants and subsidies Wind, Bioenergy, Geothermal, Hydropower, Multiple RE Sources, Multiple RE Sources>Power, Ocean, Solar
Source

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/International Energy Agency (www.iea.org) and International Renewable Energy Agency (www.irena.org). 2016. Joint Policies and Measures Database.

Reference date: 21st May 2016

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